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History: HIS - 340 Sports, War and Masculinity

Cite your sources!

Primary Sources

Primary Sources are immediate, first-hand accounts of a topic, from people who had a direct connection with it (a participant or observer). Primary sources do not have to be used in their original form. They may be reproduced electronically, printed or published later and still be considered primary sources.


  • Speeches, diaries, letters, interviews
  • Photographs, video, or audio that capture an event
  • Newspaper reports, by reporters who witnessed an event or who quote people who did
  • Texts of laws and other original documents
  • Artwork, poetry

Select Archives - Military

Select Archives - Sports

Secondary Sources

Secondary Sources are one step removed from primary sources, though they often quote or otherwise use primary sources. They can cover the same topic, but add a layer of interpretation and analysis.


  • Most books about a topic
  • Scholarly articles about a topic
  • Documentaries (thought these often include photos or video portions that can be considered primary sources).
  • Law Reviews
  • Dissertations

Sample Journals

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